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  • ChainIDE#20 The design concept of "bridge" in the multi-chain era

    ChainIDE#20 The design concept of "bridge" in the multi-chain era

    Ethereum cannot meet the needs of all users due to its own scalability issues. Blockchain developers have also devoted themselves to the research and creation of other public chains. At present, an environment with more than 100 active public blockchains has been formed.Among them, public chains such as Polkadot, Cosmos, and Solana have their own user ecology, applications, and security models.

    While forming this kind of multi-chain market structure, inevitably, it is necessary to realize the interoperability between different networks.Many developers are also aware of this, so as the multi-chain environment is gradually improved, the concept of "bridge" has also entered the public eye."Bridge" can unify the fragmented public chain structure, break the island effect of each public chain, and turn the public chain environment into an interconnected whole.

    The specific role of "Bridge":

    [1]. Improve the productivity and utility of existing encrypted assets

    [2]. Provide more powerful product functions for existing agreements

    [3]. Unlock new features and use cases for users and developers

    At an abstract level, a "bridge" can be defined as a system that transmits information (assets, contract calls, proofs, or status) between two or more blockchains.The design module of "Bridge" includes monitoring, information transmission/relay, consensus, and signature.

    Type of "Bridge":

    [1]. Asset-specific type: The sole purpose of this type of "bridge" is to access a specific asset from an external chain.

    [2]. Chain-specific type: This type of "bridge" connects two different blockchain networks, and usually supports the simple operation of locking & unlocking Tokens on the source chain and casting any "packaged" assets on the target chain.

    [3]. Application-specific type: An application provides access to two or more blockchain networks, but it can only be used within the application.

    [4]. Universal: A protocol designed specifically for the transmission of information across multiple chains.

    According to different verification mechanisms for cross-chain transactions, the design types of "bridges" are as follows:

    [1]. External Verifier & Federalism

    Usually there is a group of validators that monitor the "mailbox" addresses on the source chain and perform operations on the target chain after they reach a consensus.
    The transfer of assets is usually done by locking the assets in the mailbox and casting the same amount of assets on the target chain. These verifiers usually need to pledge a separate token to ensure security.

    [2]. Light client & relay

    Participants monitor events on the source chain and generate encrypted proofs of past events recorded on the chain.
    Then, these proofs and the block header are forwarded to the contract on the target chain (ie, "light client"), and then the target chain will verify whether an event is recorded, and perform operations after verification.

    [3]. Liquidity Network

    This design is similar to a peer-to-peer network, where each node acts as a "router", holding the "inventory" of the source chain and target chain assets.

    Discussion

    1. Do you think there is the best "bridge" design? Please leave your opinion.

    2. Please talk about the "bridge" you know.

    Read reference

    1.Step into the multi-chain era, understand the blockchain "bridge" and its design trade-offs in one article

    2.In the multi-chain era, how to choose the bridge that suits you best?

    3.Multi-chain coexistence, cross-chain becomes rigid demand

    4.Cross-chain bridge helps you to travel freely in the multi-chain era

    Welcome to discuss here!

    posted in [EN] Ethereum Developer Discussion
  • ChainIDE#20 多链时代下「桥」的设计理念

    ChainIDE#20 多链时代下「桥」的设计理念

    以太坊因为它本身的扩展性问题不能满足所有用户的需求,区块链的开发者们就开始致力于其他公链的研究与创造,目前已经形成了一个超100条活跃公链的区块链环境,其中Polkadot、Cosmos、Solana等公链都有了自己的用户生态、应用程序、安全模型等。

    在形成这种多链市场结构的同时,不可避免地,就需要实现不同网络之间的互操作。许多开发者也意识到了这一点,因而在逐渐完善多链环境的时候,「桥」这一理念也走入大众视野,「桥」可以将碎片化的公链格局统一起来,打破各公链的孤岛效应,将公链环境变成一个互联互通的整体。

    「桥」的具体作用:

    [1].提高现有加密资产的生产率和效用性

    [2].为现有协议提供更强大的产品功能

    [3].为用户和开发者解锁新的功能和用例

    抽象层面上,「桥」可以定义为在两个或多个区块链之间传输信息(资产、合约调用、证明或状态)的系统。「桥」的设计权衡中包含监控、信息传递/中继、共识、签名这几部分。

    「桥」的类型:

    [1].资产专用型:这类「桥」的唯一的目的是从外部链访问某种特定的资产。

    [2].链专用型:这类「桥」连接两个不同的区块链网络,通常支持在源链上锁定 & 解锁 Tokens 并在目标链上铸造任何“包装的”资产的简单操作。

    [3].应用专用型:一个应用提供对两个或多个区块链网络的访问,但仅限在该应用内使用。

    [4].通用型:一个专门为跨多条链传输信息而设计的协议。

    根据不同验证跨链交易的机制,「桥」的设计类型有以下几种:

    [1].外部验证者 & 联邦制

    通常有一组验证者监视源链上的“邮箱”地址,并在它们达成共识后在目标链上执行操作。资产的转移通常是通过在邮箱中锁定资产并在目标链上铸造等量的资产来完成的。这些验证者通常需要质押一种单独的 Token,以保证安全性。

    [2].轻客户端 & 中继

    参与者监视源链上的事件,并生成关于该链上记录的过去事件的加密证明。然后,这些证明和区块头一起被转发到目标链上的合约 (即“轻客户端”),然后目标链将验证某个事件是否被记录,并在验证之后执行操作。

    [3].流动性网络

    这种设计类似于点对点网络,其中每个节点都充当一个“路由器”,持有源链和目标链资产的“库存”。

    讨论

    1.你认为存在最佳的「桥」设计吗?请谈谈你的见解。

    2.请谈一谈你了解的「桥」。

    阅读参考

    1.跻身多链时代,一文读懂区块链「桥」及其设计权衡

    2.身处多链时代 如何选择一款最适合你的桥?

    3.多链并存 跨链成刚需

    4.跨链桥助你在多链时代自由穿梭

    欢迎加入我们的讨论~

    posted in [CN] 以太坊开发人员讨论
  • ChainIDE#19 A new breakthrough in the zero-knowledge proof: zksync 2.0

    ChainIDE#19 A new breakthrough in the zero-knowledge proof: zksync 2.0

    At present, Optimism and Arbitrum have low gas costs, good security, and good user experience, so they are favored by most users in a group of Layer 2 solutions.Although the ZK rollup solution is more secure and has a shorter exit period, it has always been regarded as a potential stock because it uses zero-knowledge proof technology and does not support EVM.

    On October 13th, Ethereum Layer 2 network developer Matter Labs announced the launch of the first migrated zksync 2.0 test application UniSync, which means that zkEVM has been fully compatible with Solidity, and existing Ethereum applications will be seamlessly migrated to Zksync 2.0 Layer 2 network.

    UniSync网站

    What's zkEVM?

    zkEVM is a virtual machine that executes smart contracts in a way that is compatible with zero-knowledge proof calculations. This is the key to building an EVM-compatible ZK rollup two-layer network, while retaining the actual code and related knowledge.zkEVM retains the EVM semantics, but it is also friendly to ZK, and it also uses a traditional CPU architecture.

    The launch of zkEVM represents an important turning point in encryption technology. In the past year, the development of the entire zero-knowledge proof ecosystem has exceeded the expectations of many experts. Now Solidity programmers can access the unparalleled scalability of zero-knowledge proof. Security and UX advantages.So this means that zksync 2.0 supports smart contracts, which will also greatly reduce developers' development costs, while users can also enjoy the expansion advantages brought by ZK Rollup technology.

    Compared with Optimism and Arbitrum, what are the specific advantages of zksync 2.0?

    1) Higher security: ZK rollup eliminates the dependence on observers and replaces the economic security of game theory with cryptographic security. Users trust pure mathematics instead of encouraging participants.

    2) Higher capital efficiency: In the OR scheme, any asset extraction takes a long time (best case: 1 week), this is a safety parameter, shortening it will have an impact on safety. The waiting time of ZK rollup is very short. There are currently some cross-chain bridges that can help OR solve the withdrawal problem, but it is still unable to achieve large-scale transfers because the liquidity provider (LP) is unlikely to let so many funds idle.

    3) NFT user experience will be better: In the OR scheme, the extraction of NFT cannot be speeded up (the LP solution is not applicable because NFT is the only one). Therefore, to extract NFT, the OR user actually has to wait 1 week or longer.

    4) Lower transaction costs: ZK Rollup is cheaper for most popular encryption use cases because it requires the least amount of data published on the chain (no signatures and transaction parameters). In addition, ZKSync 2.0 will have an extension called zkPorter, which provides a fixed transaction fee of 1-3 cents by moving data out of the blockchain.

    Discussion

    1.Talk about your understanding of the expansion plan

    2.What do you think are the disadvantages of zksync 2.0?

    Read reference

    1.Matter Labs migrates Uniswap V2 smart contracts and front-end to zkSync 2.0 testnet

    2.zkEVM is fully compatible with Solidity. Is zksync 2.0 coming?

    3.An article exploring zkEVM: the key to the expansion plan of Ethereum

    Welcome to discuss here!

    posted in [EN] Ethereum Developer Discussion
  • ChainIDE#19 零知识证明方案的新突破:zksync 2.0

    ChainIDE#19 零知识证明方案的新突破:zksync 2.0

    目前,Optimism和Arbitrum凭借其低gas、安全性好、用户体验佳的优势在一众Layer2解决方案中获得多数用户的青睐,而ZK rollup方案虽然安全性更高、退出期更短,但由于采用了零知识证明技术,且不支持EVM,因而此前一直被看成是潜力股。

    10月13日,以太坊Layer 2网络开发商Matter Labs宣布推出首个迁移的zksync 2.0测试应用UniSync,这意味着zkEVM已经实现对Solidity的完全兼容,现有的以太坊应用将可以无缝迁移至zksync 2.0二层网络。

    UniSync网站

    什么是zkEVM?

    zkEVM 是一种以兼容零知识证明计算的方式执行智能合约的虚拟机,这是构建与 EVM 兼容的ZK rollup二层网络的关键,同时能够保留经实战测试的代码及相关知识。zkEVM 保留了 EVM 语义,但它对ZK也是友好的,它还采用了传统的 CPU 架构。

    zkEVM 的推出代表了加密技术的一个重要转折点,在过去的一年里,整个零知识证明生态系统的发展已超出了很多专家的预期,现在Solidity 程序员可以访问零知识证明的无与伦比的扩展性、安全性和 UX 优势。那么这意味着,zksync 2.0支持智能合约,也将大大降低开发者的开发成本,同时用户还能享受到ZK Rollup技术带来的扩展优势。

    与Optimism和Arbitrum相比,zksync 2.0具体有哪些优势呢?

    1)安全性更高:ZK rollup消除了对观察者的依赖,用密码学安全取代了博弈论的经济安全,用户信任的是纯数学,而不是去激励参与者。

    2)更高的资本效率:在OR方案中,任何资产的提取都需要很长时间(最佳情况:1周),这是一个安全参数,缩短它会对安全性产生影响,而ZK rollup的等待时间是非常短的。目前有一些跨链桥可以帮助OR解决提款问题,但仍无法实现大规模的转账,因为流动性提供者(LP)不太可能让那么多资金闲置。

    3)NFT用户体验会更佳:在OR方案中,NFT的提取不能加快(LP解决方案不适用,因为NFT是唯一的),因此,要提取NFT,OR用户实际上必须要等待1周或更长的时间。

    4)交易成本更低:ZK Rollup对于大多数流行的加密用例来说更便宜,因为它需要在链上发布的数据量最少(没有签名和交易参数)。此外,ZKSync 2.0将有一个名为zkPorter的扩展,它通过将数据移出区块链以提供1-3美分的固定交易费用。

    讨论

    1.谈谈你对扩容方案的了解

    2.你认为zksync 2.0有哪些缺点呢?

    阅读参考

    1.Matter Labs 将 Uniswap V2 智能合约和前端迁移至 zkSync 2.0 测试网

    2.zkEVM实现完全兼容Solidity,zksync 2.0要来了?

    3.科普 | 一文探究zkEVM:以太坊扩容方案的关键

    欢迎大家加入我们的话题讨论会参与讨论~

    posted in [CN] 以太坊开发人员讨论
  • RE: 这是创世帖~~~

    @cryptocat welcome~~~

    posted in 话题闲聊
  • ChainIDE#18 Matrix World is here,is the metaverse still far away?

    ChainIDE#18 Matrix World is here,is the metaverse still far away?

    Matrix World is a 3D programmable multi-chain metaverse promoted by Matrix Lab and WhiteMatrix. Unlike other previous blockchain games, Matrix World tries to build a Turing-complete immersive metaverse. Users can create and experience in Matrix World with a lower marginal cost.Also,beacons will be provided for our MatrixWorld, and code is key to agglomerating the multiverse with the purpose of ultimately combining them into a metaverse entity. Matrix World offer user a metaspace capable of creating AI Generate Contents(AIGC) and User Generate Contents(UGC) through a 3D low code framework.

    Referral Contest

    At present, Matrix World has released a referral contest. After completing the account registration, you can forward the link and recommend it to other blockchain game enthusiasts to participate in the registration.The more users you recommended to register for Matrix World, the higher you will rank. This event ends on October 18th, the top 200 players in the final cumulative ranking will receive a pre-sale metaspace in Matrix World as a reward.

    NFT Airdrops

    Matrix World is a multi-elements synthetic world. In order to reward users, Matrix World will offer pecial NFT airdrops for each player.

    Airdrop for Ethereum Users

    We will provide free airdrops to owners who have collected the NFT collections listed above. **[Please note: multiple NFTs in the same set are counted only once, that is, each set can only get one airdrop NFT.]**For instance, If one user has 8 different sets of NFTs, then he will get 8 airdrops NFTs.

    Airdrop for Flow Users

    On Oct15, MatrixWorld will offer free NFT airdrops in Flow Fest Activity, Every festival attendee will have the opportunity to redeem one Mystery Box. Once Users open the Mystery box, each user will receive their NFTs directly to their Blocto wallet or any FCL compatible non-custodial wallet.

    Airdrop for ChainIDE Users

    ChainIDE users who registered before October 18th and created a project with ChainIDE (You will have to ensure that the email address you use in Matrix registration is the same as the ChainIDE account’s email).

    Users who want to get NFT airdrops must register on the Matrix website with the same wallet holding listed NFTs before the pre-sale starts. The snapshot will be taken right after the early access closes.


    Matrix World will release the pre-sale application in mid-October and start the qualification review process at the same time. Welcome everyone to follow the Matrix official website and discord community for more details.

    More about Matrix World

    1.Matrix World website

    2.Matrix World discord community

    3.Matrix World referral contest

    4.Matrix World airdrop

    5.Matrix World Whitepaper

    6.Matrix World FAQ

    posted in [EN] Ethereum Developer Discussion
  • ChainIDE#18 Matrix World来了,元宇宙还会远吗?

    ChainIDE#18 Matrix World来了,元宇宙还会远吗?

    Matrix World是Matrix Lab与纯白矩阵合作推进的一款3D可编程的多链元宇宙,与以往其他链游不同的是,Matrix World试图构建一个图灵完备的沉浸式元宇宙,用户可以在Matrix World中用更低的边际成本进行创造与体验。Matrix World为用户提供的元宇宙空间,可以实现3D低代码的AI Generate Contents(AIGC) 与User Generate Contents(UGC)创造。此外,Matrix World能够为元宇宙世界提供信标,通过代码融合多元宇宙空间,为元宇宙的创新提供丰富的场景和合作资源。

    目前,Matrix World已经开启了推荐注册竞赛,完成账户注册后,可以将链接转发推荐给其他链游爱好者参与注册,推荐越多的用户注册Matrix World,排名越靠前,本活动截止到10月18日结束,最后累计排名前200名玩家将获得Matrix World中的一个预售元宇宙空间作为奖励。

    Matrix World是一个多元素的合成世界,为了回馈用户Matrix World将为每个玩家提供特殊的NFT空投。

    以太坊用户空投

    我们将为收藏以上列出的NFT藏品的所有者提供免费的空投。请注意:同一个集合的多个NFT仅计数一次,也就是说,每个集合只能获得一个空投的NFT,并且每个玩家最多可以获得8个空投。

    Flow 用户空投

    10 月 15 日,MatrixWorld 将在 Flow Fest 活动中提供免费NFT空投,每位节日参与者都有机会兑换一个神秘盒子。一旦用户打开神秘盒子,每个用户将直接在他们的 Blocto 钱包或任何 FCL 兼容的非托管钱包收到他们的 NFT。

    ChainIDE 用户空投

    10月18日之前注册并使用 ChainIDE 创建项目的 ChainIDE 用户(您必须确保您在 Matrix 注册时使用的电子邮件地址与 ChainIDE 帐户的电子邮件地址相同)。

    想要获得NFT空投的用户必须在预售开始前使用持有上述列出的NFT的同一个钱包在 Matrix 官网上注册。snapshot将在Early acess结束后立即开始投票。


    Matrix World将在10月10日开放预售申请并同时启动资格审查流程,欢迎大家关注Matrix官网以及discord社区了解更多详情。

    了解Matrix World

    1.Matrix World website

    2.Matrix World discord community

    3.Matrix World referral contest

    4.Matrix World airdrop

    5.Matrix World Whitepaper

    6.Matrix World FAQ

    参与ChainIDE话题讨论会,发表你的看法~

    posted in [CN] 以太坊开发人员讨论
  • RE: 这是创世帖~~~

    @srdw hello~~~

    posted in 话题闲聊
  • RE: 硬核:闪电网络技术分析

    我把找到的两篇参考文章链解贴在下面,一篇是中文稿,一篇是英文稿。

    看完他们的文章,理解之后写了这篇帖子,欢迎大家在下面留言交流~

    Ref:
    【中文】6000字读懂闪电网络原理

    【英文】Bitcoin Magzin -《闪电网络三部曲》

    posted in 话题闲聊
  • RE: 硬核:闪电网络技术分析

    闪电网络中,跨多人交易如何进行?

    例如:Alice和Bob有通道,Bob和Carol有通道,这样Alice就可以直接给Carol转移BTC。

    通过Bob作路由,详细路径和方法如下:

    1. Carol和Alice确定BTC数量,Carol给Alice一个哈希锁,且只有Carl知道哈希锁的密文Input。

    2. 然后Alice发起一个转账请求给Bob,基于HTLC(哈希时间锁),即在一段时间内,如果Bob无法提供准确的密文来解锁,则Alice转账的Token将原封不动的还给他自己。

    3. Bob发起跟Alice一样数量Token的哈希锁的转账请求给Carol,Carol通过自己的密文解锁Bob的交易,获得和Alice发起的交易等额的BTC,并将密文传递给Bob。

    4. Bob拿着Carol给的密文找Alice解锁Alice的BTC,同时还可以赚取Alice给的路由费。

    过程2的HTLC设置的时间长一定要大于过程3的,因为Bob必须拿到密文之后才可以解锁Alice的费用。

    86fd949c-1b1d-4a23-a37c-1c627ef01f61-image.png

    posted in 话题闲聊