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  • ChainIDE#37 Stateless Rollup

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    Full node validates blocks by downloading all transactions and re-executing them to check their validity, and not surprisingly, larger blocks impose a greater burden on the full node because more hardware is required to process and validate each block. Techniques such as fraud and proof of validity allow nodes to check validity without having to re-execute each transaction. Data availability sampling technology enables nodes to verify data availability while downloading only a small portion of each block.

    Statelessness is a feature where the whole node validates blocks without storing state (this is called Statelessness). There are two main types of statelessness:

    1. Strong statelessness: No node is required to store state.

    2. Weak statelessness: Only the block producer is required to store state.

    To verify the validity of a block, the full node starts with a pre-state root, which is the root of the state tree after the previous block has been attached to the chain. The transaction is then re-executed, generating a new state root (called post State root). The computed POST State root is then verified against the POST State root in the proposed block header. If a match is made, the block is valid; if not, the block is invalid and rejected. However, stateless nodes do not initially have pre-state root because they do not store state. In a stateless rollup, the sequencer assigns each block a pre-state root and a Post state root to validate the block.

    Therefore, stateless rollup has two benefits

    1, state growth

    Removing the requirement of the full node storage state will lower the hardware threshold, thus reducing the barrier for more users to run the full node. Mitigating the negative effects of state growth is just as important for rollup as any other chain, because they are also vulnerable. Since weak statelessness does not absolve the sequencer from storing state, the most used rollups will find that state growth can be a hindrance. We can implement further measures to reduce the growth of the sequencer's state, for example, when the state expires, states that have not been accessed during a given period of time are removed from the state.

    Incidentally, stateless also removes the DoS attack vector for disk IO, since stateless nodes no longer need to perform state access, which is especially useful if rollup has a large state.

    2. Fraud proof

    Statelessness and fraud certificates are two sides of the same coin; as soon as one is implemented, the other is made available for free. Nodes require pre-state root and Post State root to verify proof of fraud, similar to requirements for stateless block verification. Admittedly, there are other considerations regarding proof of fraud, such as single versus multiple rounds, bonding, and general censorship resistance details.

    ** Discussion: **

    1. What do you think is the most valuable use of stateless Rollup?

    2. Do you think stateless rollup will ever replace the old rollup technology?

    Read the extension:

    1.article about stateless Rollup
    2.Deep analysis of L1 and L2 thinking mode differences
    3.Vitalik: Rollups incomplete guide

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  • ChainIDE#37 无状态Rollup

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    全节点验证区块的方式,是通过下载所有交易并重新执行它们来检查其有效性,毫不奇怪的是,更大的区块会给全节点带来更大的负担,因为处理和验证每个区块需要更多的硬件。而欺诈和有效性证明等技术使得节点能够检查有效性,而无需重新执行每笔交易。数据可用性采样技术使得节点能够验证数据可用性,同时只下载每个区块的一小部分。

    所谓无状态(Statelessness)是一种特性,是指全节点可以在不存储状态的情况下验证区块(这就叫无状态)。而无状态主要有两种:

    1. 强无状态:不需要节点来存储状态。
    2. 弱无状态:只需要区块生产者来存储状态。

    为了验证一个区块的有效性,全节点从一个 pre-state root 开始,它是在将前一个区块附加到链上之后的状态树的根。然后重新执行交易,生成一个新的状态根(称为 post state root)。然后,根据提议的区块头中的 post state root 来验证计算的 post state root。如果匹配,则该区块有效,如果不匹配,则该区块无效并被拒绝。但是,无状态节点一开始没有 pre-state root,因为它们不存储状态。在无状态 rollup 当中,定序器将为每个区块分配一个 pre-state root 和 post state root,以验证该区块。

    因此,无状态rollup有以下2种好处

    1、状态增长
    取消全节点存储状态的要求会降低硬件门槛,从而降低更多用户运行全节点的障碍。减轻状态增长的负面影响对于 rollup 以及任何其他链一样重要,因为它们也很脆弱。由于弱无状态并不能免除定序器存储状态的责任,因此使用最多的 rollup 会发现状态增长可能会成为一种障碍。我们可以实施进一步的措施来减少定序器的状态增长,例如,在状态到期时,在给定的时间段内未被访问的状态将从状态中删除。

    顺便说一句,无状态还移除了磁盘 IO 的 DoS 攻击向量,因为无状态节点不再需要执行状态访问,如果 rollup 具有较大的状态,这将特别有用。

    2、欺诈证明
    无状态(Statelessness)和欺诈证明是同一枚硬币的两面,只要实现了其中一个,就能免费获得另一个。节点需要 pre-state root 和 post state root 来验证欺诈证明,这与无状态区块验证的的要求类似。诚然,关于欺诈证明还有其他考虑因素,例如单轮与多轮、bonding(绑定)以及一般审查阻力细节。

    讨论:

    1.你认为无状态Rollup最有价值的应用在什么地方?

    2.你觉得无状态rollup有可能取代原有rollup技术吗?

    阅读延申:

    1.一文了解无状态 Rollup

    2.深度解析 L1 和 L2 的思维模式差异

    3.Vitalik:Rollups 不完全指南

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  • ChainIDE#36 Lens Protocol bring new thoughts for SociFi Dapp

    When the word SociFi first became popular, the first thing that everyone thought about was how to perfectly replicate Twitter, Instgram, Youtube, etc on blockchain. There are indeed some Dapps with the label of SociFi, but so far, apart from RSS3, only Lens Protocol has caused it. It has attracted the attention of blockchain natives.

    Lens is a Polygon-based Web3 social media platform developed by Aave, described by founder Stani Kulechov on Twitter Lens is an open, composable Web3 social media protocol that allows anyone to create unmanaged social media profiles, build new social media applications. It has general social media features such as profile editing, commenting, retweeting posts, etc. The difference is that Lens Protocol is powered by NFTs, allowing users to own and control all the content they create.

    From the name of the Lens protocol, it hopes that user interactions on social media will form a tree-like association in this product, connecting with each other and generating value. It is worth mentioning that the vision of Lens is to transform users from victims of zero-sum games to winners of cooperative games, which is in line with the central value stated by Web3.

    Key Features of Lens Protocol

    Profile NFT

    Profile NFT signifies the ownership of the user.Individual addresses own ProfileNFTs, and an address can contain multiple ProfileNFTs, which means that users are no longer bound by passwords and accounts, and they have as many accounts as they own as many NFTs. Profile NFTs contain a history of all user-generated posts, mirrors, comments, and more.

    Publication

    Publications are the lifeblood of all social media. In Lens, it mainly refers to posts, comments and mirroring, and all published content will be saved to the Profile NFT. In addition, the post function also comes with 2 additional functions - collection module: users can directly mint the original post into NFT; quote mode: decide who can forward and comment.

    Comment

    Although there have been many wonderful sharing of comments in all social media before, the public's attention has always focused on the author of the original post. Lens will change this in the future, making comments also valuable content and glowing. .

    Mirror

    Lens forwarding is limited by the settings of the original post.

    Collect

    The collection of content by other users can make creators profitable, which will motivate creators to create more high-quality content and help creators directly and fairly obtain assets. Creators can also set through the collect module: open sales of NFTs during a specific time period, etc., which is similar to the traditional paid reading experience.

    Follow

    Followers have records to follow, which means that early followers of high-quality accounts will be the recipients of later airdrops or bonuses.

    Built-In Governance

    Users can easily create a DAO with a specified identity and become the governor of a community.

    Lens Protocol's all-round integration into NFT's gameplay will definitely bring you a bright feeling. If you are interested, just explore it.

    Discussion:

    1. From the function of Lens Protocol, can it help users achieve a win-win situation? Do you have other opinions?

    2. Do you think Lens Protocol will replicate Stepn's success?

    Read the extension:

    1.Lens Official Webiste

    1. Lens Docs

    2. Lens Protocol: a powerful tool for building a Web3 platform

    3. How does the Lens Protocol transform social media?

    4. The Way To Web3②——From Lens Protocol to Web3 Personal Data Solutions

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  • ChainIDE#36 Lens Protocol—— SociFi Dapp 新思路

    SociFi这个词刚火起来的时候,大家最先思索的一定是如何将Twitter、Instgram、Youtube等完美复刻上链,确实有一些打着 SociFi标签的Dapp出现,但至今除了RSS3,只有Lens Protocol引起了区块链原住民们的注意。

    Lens 是 Aave 开发的基于 Polygon 的 Web3 社交媒体平台,创始人 Stani Kulechov 在推特上描述 **Lens 是开放的、可组合的Web3社交媒体协议,允许任何人创建非托管的社交媒体资料,构建新的社交媒体应用程序。**它具有一般的社交媒体功能,例如个人资料编辑、评论、转发帖子等,不同的是 Lens Protocol 由 NFT 提供支持,支持用户拥有和控制其所创作的所有内容。

    从Lens协议的名字来看,它希望社交媒体上的用户互动能在这个产品中形成一种树根状的关联,彼此连接并产生价值。值得一提的是,Lens的愿景是 让用户从零和游戏的牺牲者转变为合作游戏中的共赢者,这与Web3所阐述的中心价值是相向而行的。

    Lens Protocol 的主要功能

    Profile NFT

    个人主页NFT标志着用户的所有权。单个地址可拥有多个个人主页NFT,一个地址可以包含多个个人主页NFT,这也就意味着用户不再受密码和账户的约束,拥多少个NFT就拥有多少个账号。Profile NFT 包含用户生成的所有帖子、镜像、评论等其他内容的历史记录。

    Publication

    内容是所有社交媒体的灵魂,在Lens中主要指帖子、评论和镜像,而所有发布的内容都会保存到个人主页NFT中。此外发贴功能还附带2个额外的功能——收集模块:用户直接可以直接把原帖mint成NFT;引用模式:决定谁可以转发和评论。

    Comment

    此前所有社交媒体中的评论尽管有很多远超于原帖的精彩分享,但大众的注意力始终聚焦于原帖作者,Lens未来将改变这一点,让评论也变成有价值的内容,发光发热。

    Mirror

    Lens转发功能受限于原帖的设置。

    Collect

    其他用户对内容的收藏可以使得创作者获利,这将激励创作者创作更多优质内容,也能帮助创作者直接公平地获得资产。创作者也可以通过collect模块设置:在特定时间段开放销售 NFT 等,这类似于传统的付费阅读的体验。

    Follow

    关注有记录可循,这意味着,优质账号的早期关注者会成为后期空投或者是送福利的对象。

    Built-In Governance

    用户可以便利地凭借规定的身份创建DAO,成为一个社区的治理者。

    Lens Protocol全方位融入NFT的玩法相信一定给你带来眼前一亮的感觉,如果你感兴趣,记得去探索~

    讨论:

    1.从Lens Protocol的功能来看,它能够帮助用户获得共赢吗?你是否有其他的看法?

    2.你认为Lens Protocol会复刻Stepn的成功吗?

    阅读延申:

    1.Lens Official Webiste

    2.Lens Docs

    3.Lens Protocol:搭建Web3平台的利器

    4.Lens Protocol如何改造社交媒体?

    5.The Way To Web3②——从Lens Protocol到Web3个人数据解决方案

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  • Claim OAT Tutorial

    Claim OAT Tutorial

    1.Add the BNB Chain network to the Metamask wallet or other wallet

    Network name : binance smart chain main

    Add RPC URL : https://bsc-dataseed.binance.org/

    Chain ID : 56

    Currency symbol : BNB(Main)

    2.Open ChainIDE GUESS & WIN OAT Claim webpage, connect to the wallet and select BNB chain

    3.Click claim, click Galaxy ID to see the OAT

    posted in Beginner Tutorial
  • ChainIDE#35 What signal does THE Op issue send out?

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    Recently, Optimism announced a retrospective token airdrop for active users and community members. The project has generated great interest in the community as it promises to bring much-needed scalability to the Ethereum ecosystem. It is currently TVL's second largest Rollup extension and is probably the largest Rollup by market cap at the time of token release.

    Optimism was launched in June 2019 and TestNet was released in October 2019. Alpha mainnet wasn't launched until January 2021, and Ethereum Virtual machines weren't launched until October 2021. An open mainnet was launched in December 2021.

    Optimism is an extended solution to the Ethereum blockchain, and while Optimism ultimately publishes data to Ethereum, it performs ethereum-based off-chain transactions. In this way, Optimism achieves significant transaction efficiency and security at the same time. Optimism is the advantage of avoiding main network gas costs and transaction congestion while enjoying main network quality and safety. In addition to fast and inexpensive transactions, Optimism is currently the only L2 offering full Ethereum virtual Machine (EVM) equivalency.

    As a result, Optimism was the first L2 to fully conform to the Ethereum protocol specification. This EVM equivalence reduces the need for compilers, and Optimism allows DeFi and NFT projects to deploy to Optimism with one click, and then still use all the good Ethereum L1 tools, such as Hardhat, Vyper, and others.

    The main drivers of Optimism are as follows:

    1. EVM equivalence
    Optimism goes beyond simple EVM compatibility to EVM equivalence. On evM-compliant chains, developers still need to modify their Web3 applications to use a different architecture. Also, the tools built for Ethereum over time may not work for other EVM-compatible chains. EVM equivalence on Optimism solves this problem by performing almost identically on the Ethereum main network, allowing one-click portability of applications and all tools to work. This approach will help Optimism grow the developer community faster and with fewer bugs than other extension solutions.

    2. Ecosystems encourage innovation
    Optimism was very cautious about its airdrop plans; Only 5% of the promised 14% airdrops have been confirmed. With more airdrops promised in the future, users are motivated to be active on the platform.

    Retrospective public Good Funding (RPGF) also provides long-term incentives for developers to contribute to Optimism. Optimism also recently announced a "Stimipack" that dedicates 5.4% of the token supply to developer incentives. The ecosystem incentivized to create another flywheel. The greater the market value of Optimism at the time of release, the more money is available for incentives, potentially leading to more user and developer activity. However, as any part of the flywheel slows down, there is also a negative feedback loop.

    The OP token is a new type of governance token. The token holder does not have sole governance over the agreement; They share with designated citizens. This governance process and structure is based on its charter of work and will evolve according to the requirements of the agreement. The working charter also gives token holders some control over the Optimism Foundation's board of Directors, including the ability to remove directors and veto changes to Foundation documents if they reduce their rights. While not in absolute control, token holders do have sufficient control over the protocol and can fairly claim the sequencer profits to themselves.

    The total supply of OP at the time of release was 4,294,967,296, with an annual inflation rate of 2%. In our model, we assume that all tokens held in the vault have been distributed. While the document does not explicitly state this, annual inflation may move in the RPGF direction and generate at least as much value for the agreement as its market price. So we can ignore inflation in our calculations.

    Discuss

    1. Do you think other L2 projects will follow?
    2. What do you think is the value of OP token you value most?

    Further Reading

    1. Optimism start guide
    2. industry science | L2 war has begun, parsing Optimism valuation models
    3. What Is Optimism? Using Rollups to Help Scale Ethereum

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  • ChainIDE#35 Op发币释放了什么信号?

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    近期,Optimism 宣布了针对活跃用户和社区成员的追溯代币空投。该项目引起了社区的极大兴趣,因为它承诺为以太坊生态系统带来急需的可扩展性。目前,它是 TVL 第二大的 Rollup 扩展方案,并且可能是代币发布时按市值计算的最大 Rollup。

    Optimism 于 2019 年 6 月推出,测试网于 2019 年 10 月发布。直到 2021 年 1 月才推出Alpha 主网,直到 2021 年 10 月 Optimism 才推出与以太坊虚拟机。一个开放的主网于 2021 年 12 月启动。

    Optimism 是以太坊区块链的扩展解决方案,虽然 Optimism 最终将数据发布到以太坊,但它执行基于以太坊的链外交易。通过这种方式,Optimism 实现了显著的交易效率和安全保证的同时。避开主网 gas 成本和交易拥堵,同时享受主网质量安全是 Optimism 的优势。除了快速和廉价的交易,Optimism 也是目前唯一提供完全以太坊虚拟机(EVM)等价的 L2。

    因此,Optimism 是第一个完全符合以太坊协议规范的 L2。这种 EVM 等价性减少了对编译器的需求,并且 Optimism 允许 DeFi 和 NFT 项目一键部署到 Optimism,然后可以仍然使用所有优秀的以太坊 L1 工具,例如 Hardhat、Vyper 和其它工具。

    Optimism实现增长的主要动力有以下几点:
    1、EVM 等效性
    Optimism 超越了简单的 EVM 兼容性,转向了 EVM 等效性。在与 EVM 兼容的链上,开发人员仍然需要修改他们的 Web3 应用程序以使用不同的架构。此外,随着时间的推移为以太坊构建的工具不一定适用于其他与 EVM 兼容的链。Optimism 上的 EVM 等效性通过几乎等同于在以太坊主网上执行来解决这个问题,允许一键移植应用程序和所有工具工作。与其他扩展解决方案相比,这种方法将帮助 Optimism 更快地发展开发者社区,并且出现更少的漏洞。

    2、生态系统激励
    Optimism 对自己的空投计划非常谨慎;承诺的 14% 空投中只有 5% 已确认。随着未来承诺的更多空投,用户被激励在平台上活跃。
    追溯性公共产品资金 (RPGF) 还长期激励开发者为 Optimism 做出贡献。Optimism 最近还宣布了一个“Stimipack”,将 5.4% 的代币供应用于开发者激励。生态系统激励创造了另一个飞轮。Optimism 在发布时的市值越大,可用于激励的资金就越多,从而可能导致更多的用户和开发者活动。然而,随着飞轮的任何部分变慢,也会产生负反馈回路。

    OP 代币是一种新型的治理代币。代币持有者对协议没有唯一的治理权;他们与指定的公民分享。此治理流程和结构基于其工作章程,并将根据协议的需求进行演变。工作章程还赋予了代币持有人对 Optimism Foundation 董事会的一些控制权,包括在他们减少权利的情况下罢免董事和否决对基金会文件的更改的能力。虽然不是绝对控制,但代币持有者确实对协议有足够的控制权,并且可以公平地假设定序器的利润归他们所有。

    OP 在发布时的总供应量为 4,294,967,296,每年通货膨胀率为 2%。在我们的模型中,我们假设金库中持有的所有代币都已分发。虽然文件没有明确说明这一点,但每年的通货膨胀可能会朝着 RPGF 方向发展,并为协议产生至少与其市场价格一样多的价值。因此,我们可以在计算中忽略通货膨胀。
    图片

    讨论
    1、你认为其他L2项目会紧随其后发行代币吗?
    2、你认为你最看重的OP代币的价值在什么地方?

    延伸阅读
    1、Optimism入门指南
    2、行业科普 | L2战争已经打响,解析Optimism估值模型
    3、What Is Optimism? Using Rollups to Help Scale Ethereum

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  • ChainIDE#34 Will Cult.DAO be the next DAO revolution?

    Messari’s annual report states that 2022 will be the year of the DAO. As of April 15, the number of DAOs has grown to 4,833, and the AUM has grown from $920 million in May last year to $11.8 billion, an increase of 1182%. There are 169 DAOs over $100 million.

    Recently, the surge of Cult.DAO's token in the secondary market has led more and more people to study the logic of its project from Cult.DAO's token.

    Cult.DAO officially released its first tweet on Twitter on January 20, 2022, and just over 2 months after its birth, it ushered in an outbreak at the end of March, skyrocketing 365 times in 9 days. The huge wealth effect, mysterious project party, KOL as "guardian", ideological blessing and other factors are mixed together, making CultDAO quickly become a hot topic in major communities.

    Features of Cult.DAO

    From a business logic point of view, CultDAO is a decentralized venture capital fund: the community votes on proposals, community members participate in the investment in a decentralized way through crowdfunding as investors, and then return the investment returns to CultDAO tokens in the form of dividends the pledgee.

    But it is not an ordinary venture capital DAO. It uses a very provocative manifesto, a decentralized proposal and voting model, destroys the private key and the contract can never be changed. It takes the ideology of decentralization to the extreme.

    Cult.DAO's Economic Model

    CULTDAO issues tokens CULT, pledge CULT to obtain pledge certificate dCULT, and the top 50 holding dCULTs become "The Guardians", they have the right to propose DAO, but the guardians only have the right to propose, but not to the proposal Voting rights.

    "The Many", that is, dCULT holders (dCULT is the pledge certificate generated by staking CULT) have the right to vote on the proposal but not the right to propose.

    Under normal circumstances, the guardian initiates a vote, and dCULT holders vote to determine whether the project can be invested, and if it is rejected, it will be terminated. If the proposal is passed, 13 ETH will be allocated from the DAO treasury for investment.

    The DAO treasury is funded from the 0.4% tax charged per transaction by the token CULT. When the treasury collects 15.5 ETH and there is a proposal that has been voted on, then the 15.5 ETH will be divided into two parts, of which the CULT worth 2.5 ETH will be destroyed in the black hole wallet, and the other 13 ETH will be invested in Items approved by the proposal.

    After the invested project needs to issue tokens, the invested project party needs to sell the pre-agreed project tokens and exchange them for CULT. 50% of the CULT will be put into the black hole wallet, and the other 50% of the CULT will be distributed to the stakers of the CULT as a reward.

    Discussion:

    1. Talk about what attracts you most about Cult.DAO?

    2. What do you think of "Cult.DAO will bring about a DAO revolution"?

    3. What are the problems Cult.DAO exitting?

    Further Reading:

    1.详解DAO的代币经济模型:不同类型的DAO是如何设计激励机制的?

    2.从Cult.DAO的爆发探索DAO的范式转变

    3.Understand the mysterious Cult.DAO
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  • ChainIDE#34 Cult.DAO会是下一个DAO革命吗?

    Messari 年度报告表明2022年将是属于DAO的一年。截至4月15日,DAO 的数量已经增长至 4833 个,资产管理规模从去年 5 月的 9.2 亿美元增长到 118 亿美元,增长了 1182%。超过 1 亿美元的 DAO 有 169 个。

    近期,Cult.DAO的token在二级市场的暴涨使得越来越多人从Cult.DAO的token转向研究其项目本身的逻辑。

    Cult.DAO官方在2022年1月20日在Twitter发布首条推文,而诞生仅仅2个多月,它就在3月底迎来了爆发,9 天暴涨 365 倍。巨大的财富效应、神秘项目方、KOL做「守护者」、意识形态加持等因素杂糅在一起,让CultDAO迅速成为了各大社群里的热点话题。

    Cult.DAO的特点

    从业务逻辑上看,CultDAO 是一个去中心化风险投资基金:社区通过提案投票,社区成员作为投资人以去中心化的方式众筹参与投资,然后将投资回报以分红的方式回馈给 CultDAO 代币的质押者。

    但是它不是一个普通的风投DAO,它用极具煽动性的宣言书、去中心化的提案与投票模式、销毁私钥且合约永远不可更改的坚决将去中心化的意识形态发挥到了极致。

    Cult.DAO的经济模型

    CULTDAO发行代币CULT,质押CULT可以获得质押凭证dCULT,dCULT持有数量的前50名成为“The Guardians”(守护人),他们对DAO有提案权,但是守护者只有提案权而没有对提案的投票权。

    “The Many”,即dCULT持有者(dCULT即通过质押CULT而产生的质押凭证)拥有对提案的投票权但没有提案权。

    一般情况下,由守护人发起投票,dCULT持有者进行投票决定项目是否可以投资,若被否决则终止。若提案通过,则将由DAO国库拨款13个ETH进行投资。

    DAO国库的资金来自代币CULT每笔交易收取的0.4%的税。当国库每收集到15.5个ETH,并且有已投票通过的提案,这时候15.5个ETH将被分为两部分,其中价值2.5ETH的CULT被打入黑洞钱包销毁,另外的13个ETH将投资给提案通过的项目。

    被投资项目需要在发行代币后,被投资项目方需要卖出预先约定的项目代币并换为CULT。这其中的50%的CULT打入黑洞钱包,另外50%的CULT将作为奖励分配给CULT的质押者。

    讨论:

    1.谈一谈Cult.DAO最吸引你的地方?

    2.如何看待“Cult.DAO将带来一场DAO革命”?

    3.Cult.DAO存在哪些问题?

    阅读延申:

    1.详解DAO的代币经济模型:不同类型的DAO是如何设计激励机制的?

    2.从Cult.DAO的爆发探索DAO的范式转变

    3.带你了解神秘的Cult.DAO

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  • ChainIDE#33 What does the era of Full-chain NFT mean?

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    Much of the buzz around Omnichain stems from the rise of LayerZero Labs, a Canadian-based team that created the interoperability protocol LayerZero.
    Simply put, LayerZero is a messaging layer designed to make it easy for smart contracts to communicate between many blockchains, or indeed any blockchain.
    The protocol was initially launched to support EVM compliant projects, namely Ethereum, Arbitrum, Avalanche, BSC, Fantom, Optimism, and Polygon. The LayerZero team also plans to add support for non-EVM chains such as Cosmos Hub and Terra in the future.
    LayerZero stands out for its use of ultralight nodes (ULNs), which provide a new model for securely transferring messages between chains in an economical and efficient way.
    Therefore, LayerZero's omnichain messaging model differs from the cross-chain model, which requires the use of bridge protocols to migrate or encapsulate assets directly to other chains. For example, if I bridge ETH to Ronin bridge to use Katana decentralized exchange (cross-chain application), my ETH will be transferred directly from Ethereum to Ronin.
    The omnichain model also contrasts with the multi-chain model, in which independent communities with different values pursue their own technology stack.
    Gh0sts, the first NFT project based on the cross-chain interoperability protocol LayerZero, is the first all-chain (Omnichain)NFT series, with a total of 7,710 NFT being cast for free on 7 supported blockchains. These include Ethereum, Binance, Avalanche, Polygon, Arbitrum, Fantom and Optimism.

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    On April 5th, this series successfully topped the trading volume of Opensea for nearly 24 hours. The floor price of Opensea Ethereum once reached 0.88ETH(the actual floor price needs to integrate the market data of all 7 chains), but now it has dropped to 0.15ETH, and the total trading volume has exceeded 5,400ETH(nearly 14.5 million US dollars).
    After being born on a source chain, a ghostly Gh0sts can contract to move directly between other chains and obtain NFT assets on the target chain that are recognized by the contract. As an example, let's say a user decides to cast his NFT on Avalanche (perhaps to save some Gas). Later he decided to use his Gh0st as his PFP on Twitter (which currently only supports Ethereum mainnet authentication), so he used LayerZero's "traverseChain" feature at Avalanche, with the target chain set to Ethereum. Finally, this NFT can be verified as an ethereum contract asset by the main network in Ethereum.

    Discussion:

    1. What areas do you think full-chain technology can be extended to in the future and what impact will it have?
    2. Do you think full-chain NFT will be the trend of future NFT?

    Further Reading

    1.LayerZero document
    2.what is Gh0stly Gh0sts? NFT ghost's first full chain Opensea trading top
    3.view: the whole chain NFT era officially open, will further consolidate and expand the etheric fang influence
    4.LayerZero: Trustless Omnichain Interoperability Protocol

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